Following the results management process, if the responsible anti-doping organisation or federation concludes that an anti-doping rule violation can not be excluded, a disciplinary Proceedings is initiated.
The responsible disciplinary body for carrying out the proceeding is the body specified in the arbitration agreement between the athlete and the federation. This may be the German Court of Arbitration for Sport or a federation's court. The disciplinary body informs the accused athlete of the initiation. The athlete may be defended and bring forward evidence to his relief by a representative, in particular a lawyer. The process is carried out either as a written procedure or as a hearing.